The green star, also known as glaucoma, means a group of diseases that in the process damage the eye nerve. The result is a reduced range of vision. The most common cause of a glaucoma is high intraocular pressure. The exact causes are best understood by understanding the structure of the eye. The comparison to a camera is useful, as both work in similar manner. The outer limit is defined by the transparent cornea, followed by the iris. Then come the eye lens, which is surrounded by a transparent, watery fluid called aqueous humour. This fluid is responsible for the intraocular pressure and when it is not drained out of the eye regularly it raises the pressure. This damages the retina and reduces the range of vision over time, which is mostly not recognized early enough.
It is still not clear which circumstances are responsible for a green star. Nicotine consumption constricts blood vessels and has a negative effect on the process. Genetic predispositions are another benefactor of a glaucoma.
There are different methods to examine the eye, including examinations of the sight, slit lamp examination, ophthalmoscopy of the optic nerve, gonioscopy, tonometry (measuring the intraocular pressure), measuring the thickness of the cornea or the OCT (optical coherence tomography).
Treatment of a glaucoma starts with eye drops and regular checks. There is an option for a laser therapy. Damages cannot be reversed, which makes an early diagnosis crucial. The goal of any therapy is the reduction of the intraocular pressure.
In case of an advanced diagnosis and little success in reducing the intraocular pressure through medicinal therapy a surgical solution to the green star can be considered. The operation is a standard procedure, nevertheless the patient requires intensive aftercare. The intervention does not correct the limited sight and only reduces intraocular pressure.